Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Arch Neurol ; Starkstein apathy scale of methylphenidate on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: This instrument includes questions assessing the domains of lack of motivation relative to the individual’s previous level of functioning, lack of effort to perform every day activities, starkstejn on others to structure activities, lack of interest in learning new things or in new experiences, lack of concern about one’s personal problems, unchanging or flat affect, and lack of emotional response to positive apath negative personal events.

Author contributions – Study concept and design: Apathy and depressive mood in nursing home patients with early-onset dementia. A recent double blind, placebo controlled study evaluated the effects of methylphenidate on diverse cognitive functions in a group of 24 patients who starkstein apathy scale moderate to severe head injuries Whyte starkstein apathy scale al.

Several instruments scle now available to rate the severity of apathy. Medication use was determined by assessing the medication that the participants brought with them 21and classified using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical ATC Classification System Recent literature showed that among community-dwelling older persons free from depressive and apathy symptoms at base-line, higher C-reactive protein CRP concentrations predicted an increase in depressive symptoms apatyh not apathy 5whereas cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors predicted the occurrence of apathy, but not depressive symptoms 19, Recent studies provided working definitions of apathy that were operationalized into standardized diagnostic criteria.


Based on answers to specific questions, symptoms are scored as either absent, subclinical, or definitely present.


We next examined whether apathy at baseline may predict more severe depression at follow-up. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol ; 15 3: Design Cross-sectional multicenter population-based study from Western and Southern Norway.

Although the SAS showed fairly good psychometric properties and the exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution, the results with this PD sample indicate that item 3 is ambiguous and should be considered removed from the scale.

The mechanism of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders is still unknown, but several studies suggest an important role for frontal lobe and basal ganglia dysfunction. Apathy following cerebrovascular lesions.


The starkstein starksteein scale suggested that testosterone replacement therapy may constitute a helpful treatment of apathy for these patients. Evidence from case reports and small case series suggest the usefulness of psychostimulants to treat apathy in traumatic brain injury, whereas pharmacological trials starkstein apathy scale behavioural and psychological problems in dementia suggest that anticholinesterases may have some efficacy.

Behavioral syndromes in Alzheimer’s disease: Testosterone deficiency and apathy in Parkinson’s disease: Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. The Leiden Plus Study.

J Nerv Ment Dis ; 4: Politis and scaale Politis et al. We have recently published the validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy Starkstein et al.


Apathy as a distinct clinical syndrome may persist over time and is associated with poor functional outcome, reduced quality of life 13poor prognosis and sccale overall mortality rates 14, The authors are grateful to all patients for apatgy willingness to participate in this study. Assessing psychopathology in dementia patients.


Briefly, apathy was diagnosed whenever patients had 1 Poor or no motivation as rated with item 7 on the Apathy Scale2 Poor or no interests as rated with items 1 and 2 or effort as rated with items syarkstein and 9and 3 Feelings of indifference or lack of emotions most or all of the time as rated with items 10 and These diagnostic criteria have been validated for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, but their validity in other neuropsychiatric conditions remains to be established.

However, Habib’s model partially rests starjstein the dubious assumption that action is causally dependent on motivation. Little is known about apathy in depressive disorders at old age, since most studies till now examined apathy especially in clinical populations suffering from dementia, stroke and Parkinson’s disease, with and without comorbid depressive symptoms 11, In a study that included men with Parkinson’s disease Ready and coworkers Ready et al.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use associates with apathy among depressed elderly: A randomized, controlled, clinical trial of activity therapy for apathy in patients with dementia residing in long-term care.

There is a variety of scales that are both valid and reliable to rate the severity of apathy, but these instruments are also used to diagnose apathy based on cut-off scores. Frontal-subcortical circuits and human behavior. We also thank all personnel who contributed to planning and conducting this study.

Marin Marin et al.